Jared Thomas / University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

About 115 million years ago, when the continents were one, dinosaurs ruled and flowering plants were just debuting on Earth, a mushroom growing alongside a river fell into the water and was carried away to a lagoon where it was preserved in limestone. That may have been the making of the oldest known fossil of a mushroom - which will typically live for just a few days and are rarely fossilized - that was found in Brazil, scientists reported this week. Named Gondwanagaricites magnificus, the mushroom is very similar to those on Earth today.

Why it matters: The fossil record of mushrooms is sparse: only 10 had ever been found and this is the first from the supercontinent Gondwana. It promises to shed light on the evolution of fungi that play a vital role in processing and recycling nutrients in the environment.

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Amy Harder, author of Generate
35 mins ago - Energy & Environment

Climate change goes mainstream in presidential debate

Photo illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios. Photo: Olivier Douliery-Pool/Getty

The most notable part of Thursday’s presidential debate on climate change was the fact it was included as a topic and assumed as a fact.

The big picture: This is the first time in U.S. presidential history that climate change was a featured issue at a debate. It signals how the problem has become part of the fabric of our society. More extreme weather, like the wildfires ravaging Colorado, is pushing the topic to the front-burner.

Finally, a real debate

Photo: Morry Gash/AP

A more disciplined President Trump held back from the rowdy interruptions at tonight's debate in Nashville, while making some assertions so outlandish that Joe Biden chuckled and even closed his eyes.

  • A Trump campaign adviser told Axios: "He finally listened." 

The result: A real debate.

Biden to Trump: "I have not taken a penny from any foreign source ever in my life"

Former VP Joe Biden pushed back Thursday against allegations from President Trump, saying he had never profited from foreign sources. "Nothing was unethical," Biden told debate moderator Kristen Welker about his son Hunter's work in Ukraine while he was vice president.

Why it matters: Earlier on Thursday, Hunter Biden's former business partner, Tony Bobulinski, released a statement saying Joe Biden's claims that he never discussed overseas business dealings with his son were "false."