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Polina Shuvaeva / iStock

Scientists have long known that depression expresses differently in men and women, but new research shows that those differences are brain-deep. The study, published Tuesday in the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry, found variations in the activity of two regions of the brain associated with depression (the supramarginal gyrus and posterior cingulate) in adolescent boys and girls.

Why it matters: According to the CDC, women are almost twice as likely to experience depression as men, but men are more likely to experience chronic depression and commit suicide. Additionally, say the researchers, most research on depression focuses on women because it's more common. By understanding how the brains of men and women behave when they're depressed, scientists hope to develop better diagnosis and treatment.

What they did: The study participants were given what's called a go/no-go task. They were shown a group of words — some considered to be happy or sad — and were instructed to press a button when certain words appeared on the screen. As the participants completed the task, the researchers used an fMRI to see how each group's brains responded to the happy or sad words.

Limitations:

The study has a fairly small sample size — 82 depressed females between the ages of 11 and 18 and 24 healthy females in the same age bracket. But they had difficulty recruiting males, perhaps because of the lower prevalence of depression, so their study included only 24 depressed males and 10 healthy males.

Go deeper

2 hours ago - Health

NYC to impose vaccine mandate on private employers

New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio (D) on Monday announced a new COVID vaccine mandate for all private companies.

Why it matters: De Blasio, speaking on MSNBC's "Morning Joe," said the "first-in-the-nation measure" will go into effect starting Dec. 27. It will apply to approximately 184,000 businesses.

D.C.-Beijing tensions are shifting markets

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

U.S. markets stand to lose $2 trillion in value if D.C. and Beijing drift further apart.

Why it matters: Political chasms are showing up in new securities regulations that put companies and investors in a bind. The rules are also another reflection of how much relations between the world’s largest economies have cooled, even as they remain economically interdependent. 

5 hours ago - Health
Axios Investigates

Documents reveal the secrecy of America's drug pricing matrix

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

American businesses spend hundreds of billions of dollars a year on prescription drugs, and the bills keep getting bigger. But some of the companies promising to help rein in those costs prevent employers from looking under the hood.

Why it matters: Documents provided to Axios reveal a new layer of secrecy within the maze of American drug pricing — one in which firms that manage drug coverage for hundreds of employers, representing millions of workers, obscure the details of their work and make it difficult to figure out whether they're actually providing a good deal.