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Illustration: Eniola Odetunde/Axios

The sudden wave of tens of millions of unemployment claims has overwhelmed state agencies hobbled by outdated tech and understaffed offices.

Why it matters: The federal coronavirus aid package expanded unemployment benefits for laid-off workers as the pandemic roiled the labor market, but an unprepared system has boxed out people in need — and artificially depressed the unemployment count, economists say.

By the numbers: States have processed unemployment claims for roughly one in five working Americans — some 30.3 million people — in just 6 weeks.

  • And yet the Economic Policy Institute estimates as many as 13.9 million more Americans out of work since mid-March have been unable to get unemployment benefits because "long-neglected state [unemployment] systems are unable to handle the volume of applications."

What they're saying: Peyton Cannon, a north Florida resident, filed for unemployment on March 28 after being laid off from a Goodwill store.

  • A month later, his application is still pending. He tells Axios he's called the unemployment office, but the phone lines have been jammed.
  • About 7 of every 8 Florida residents that filed for unemployment between mid-March and early April were still waiting for their applications to be processed as of last week, per analysis by the Associated Press.
  • And, as of last week, only 10 states had systems running to accept applications from newly eligible gig-economy workers, according to the Wall Street Journal.

What's happening: Three factors explain the unemployment-system meltdown.

  1. Sheer volume. "It was like a recession happened overnight, and you had to just go from zero to 100 — record low levels of unemployment insurance claims to record high levels," Steve Grove, who heads Minnesota's economic development office, tells Axios.
  2. Overstressed bureaucracies. There aren't enough human beings to quickly process the huge glut of claims, and many states have intentionally built friction into their unemployment systems in a bid to nudge people back into the workforce.
  3. Obsolete technology. States' technical systems are not built to handle the load they’re now facing, and they’re often the product of years — even decades — of individual adjustments and additions that make each one unique, and uniquely challenging to troubleshoot. Most states are only now scrambling to tap technology like chat bots and apps to offload work from state employees. "Our system had been built back in 2010 with the understanding of what was needed based on the experience with the Great Recession," says Sam Salustro, a spokesperson for Illinois' Department of Employment Security. "That was an outdated assumption."

Fixing the technical issues could be the key to solving the problem, but states lack the expertise and resources to do so themselves.

  • At the federal level, the U.S. Digital Service and 18F both recruit experienced technologists to help federal agencies with problems just like the ones unemployment offices now face. Regulations bar them from working directly with states, but some lawmakers want to use coronavirus relief legislation to change that.
  • Corporate America is pitching in. Alaska and Pennsylvania are using IBM's Watson AI technology to field and answer residents' unemployment questions. New York announced a partnership with Google, Verizon and Deloitte to revamp its employment system.
  • There's also the nonprofit U.S. Digital Response (USDR), which recently launched to help state and local governments address technical issues related to the coronavirus crisis. A team of engineers there is helping on unemployment specifically and has been tapped by eight states so far.

The other side: Some states are just jerry-rigging quick workarounds to technical logjams.

  • Kentucky is telling applicants to simply ignore erroneous alerts that it hasn’t received their applications, said Reshma Khilnani, who's leading USDR's unemployment assistance effort.
  • Washington is directing citizens to apply and get rejected for conventional unemployment insurance before applying for pandemic unemployment insurance — which allows self-employed and gig workers to get benefits — as the system’s eligibility check wouldn’t work otherwise.

The bottom line: After a more than decade-long job market boom, state labor departments across the country were unprepared for the sudden, unprecedented onslaught of unemployment filings. The newly jobless are paying the price.

  • “What we’re really hoping is that the crisis of the moment reveals that 20 years to modernize a system is a contradiction in terms,” says UDSR co-founder Jen Pahlka.

Go deeper: Government tech struggles to dole out coronavirus stimulus cash

Go deeper

Updated Aug 9, 2020 - Politics & Policy

Republicans and Democrats react to Trump's coronavirus aid action

President Trump speaks to workers at a manufacturing facility in Clyde, Ohio, on Thursday. Photo: Scott Olson/Getty Images

Some Republicans joined Democrats in criticizing President Trump Saturday night for taking executive action on coronavirus aid, with Democratic leaders demanding the GOP return to negotiations after stimulus package talks broke down a day earlier.

Why it matters: Trump could face legal challenges on his ability to act without congressional approval, where the constitutional power lies on federal spending. Sen. Ben Sasse (R-Neb.) was the most vocal Republican critic, saying in a statement: "The pen-and-phone theory of executive lawmaking is unconstitutional slop."

Bryan Walsh, author of Future
Aug 8, 2020 - Economy & Business

Jobs of the future aren't exempt from the pandemic recession

Illustration: Rebecca Zisser/Axios

The wave of unemployment connected to the pandemic even includes jobs that had been set to grow in a more digitally enabled future.

The big picture: The pandemic has accelerated shifts in the job market that will prioritize digital skills of all kinds. But the sheer job destruction of the past few months is so great that even the best-prepared fields haven't escaped losses.

31 mins ago - World

WHO revises air quality guidelines to reduce deaths from pollution

Smoke from California wildfires over the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco in August 2021. Photo: David Paul Morris/Bloomberg via Getty Images

The World Health Organization on Wednesday updated air quality guidelines it set roughly 15 years ago, saying that negative health effects from air pollutants can begin at lower levels than it previously thought.

Why it matters: The changes are meant to reduce deaths from pollutants that cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and prematurely kill an estimated 7 million people around the world annually, according to the WHO.