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Associated Press

Nearly two-thirds of players who were involved in head collisions during the 2014 World Cup weren't adequately monitored by qualified health professionals to determine if they should have continued playing, according to an extensive video study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Why it matters: Concussions — from colliding with another player or repeatedly heading the ball — may structurally change the brain and have long-term effects on brain health and cognition.

The study: Trained reviewers looked at every, single event that involved head contact during all 64 World Cup matches for obvious signs of concussion like disorientation, temporary unconsciousness, or seizure-like movements.

During the 64 World Cup games, 61 players had 81 head collisions in 72 separate events. Health care personnel on the sideline assessed the player in only 15% of the cases. In the remaining instances, 45 players were assessed on the field by other players, referee or personnel on the field, while 21 players received no assessment at all. Shockingly, for players who had three or more signs of an obvious concussion, 86% returned to play during the same game.

The rules: International protocols from the sport's governing bodies say that players who show any features of a head concussion during a World Cup match should be immediately withdrawn and assessed by sideline health care personnel. The study shows that these protocols were largely ignored during the 2014 World Cup.

Go deeper

Ex-Theranos CEO describes alleged abuse by former boyfriend and company exec

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

On her fourth day of trial testimony, ex-Theranos CEO Elizabeth Holmes described her 10-year romantic relationship with former president Ramesh "Sunny" Balwani as controlling, and said he would sometimes "force me to have sex with him when I didn’t want to."

Why it matters: While Balwani has also been similarly charged with fraud, the two are being tried separately, in part because some of Holmes' defense hinges on blaming him.

Amazon ordered to redo union vote in Alabama

Photo: Patrick Pleul/picture alliance via Getty Images

A U.S. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) official on Monday called for a re-vote in a union election at an Amazon warehouse in Bessemer, Alabama.

Why it matters: The move could set the stage for another organizing drive at the e-commerce giant, which has, so far, fought off unionizing efforts in the U.S.

Pentagon to probe 2019 Syria strike after reports of dozens of civilian casualties

Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin on Nov. 20. Photo: Mazen Mahdi/AFP via Getty Images

Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin has ordered a new investigation into a 2019 U.S. airstrike that killed around 80 people, including dozens of women and children in Syria, the New York Times reports.

Why it matters: The move comes after the Times reported this month that the Pentagon attempted to keep the strike and casualties under wraps, failing to investigate the decision behind it even after questions were raised internally.