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Expand chart
Data: U.S. Census Bureau; Map: Danielle Alberti/Axios

Population shifts mean five states that voted for Joe Biden will lose seats in the House when congressional districts are redrawn later this year, new Census numbers released Monday show, but will gain seats in two other states. Only two Trump-voting states will lose a seat.

Why it matters: Apportionment and redistricting — the process of redistributing political power among and within the states— comes as Democrats hold slim majorities in both congressional chambers and Republicans have a strong grip on the process of re-drawing district lines.

By the numbers: California — the nation's most populous state — is losing a seat for the first time in history.

  • Other states losing one: Illinois, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
  • The shifting — but still very red — state of Texas will pick up two of the reapportioned seats. Colorado, Florida, Montana, North Carolina and Oregon will also gain one seat each.
  • A census official said if New York had counted 89 additional people, the state would not have lost a congressional seat.

What they're saying: Although Biden states will lose out during this round of apportionment, Brookings Institution demographer William Frey told Axios the overall gains in western states and Texas reflect, at least in part, people moving out of one Democrat-leaning state: California.

  • So, "politically, many of these Electoral College-seat gaining states may be trending 'bluer' politically because of the movement into them from Democratic-leaning states," he said.

Between the lines: Apportionment, which happens every ten years, is the process of dividing up the 435 House seats according to the latest population counts for each state. That's measured by the Census, held the first year of each decade.

  • The full Census data that will be used for redistricting — the process of drawing new electoral districts in states — will not be publicly released until the end of September.
  • The delay was caused by the coronavirus and the Trump administration's attempts to exclude unauthorized immigrants from the Census count, which they believed would benefit Democrats.

Democrats are bracing for GOP-friendly district lines, since Republicans have unified control of the congressional redistricting process in 18 states as opposed to seven for the Democrats, according to the Brennan Center.

  • "Redistricting could likely determine who controls the House of Representatives in 2022, but also going into the next decade," Stanford Law School's Nate Persily, a redistricting expert, told Axios.

The big picture: The newly released data also underscores America's slowed growth and aging population, according to Frey.

  • The stagnating population growth, in small part due to the pandemic, means the U.S. should take "a serious look at our immigration policy going forward," he said.
  • Utah was the fastest growing state. Three states lost populations, with West Virginia's population declining at the fastest rate.
  • The U.S. saw a 7.4% increase in the population overall over the past decade, which was the second slowest increase in history.

Go deeper

Parents caught in the middle of K-12 masking debate

Illustration: Brendan Lynch/Axios

Parents in some parts of the U.S. are increasingly frustrated at their deadlocked school districts when it comes to masking policies and the few options for protecting unvaccinated kids this fall.

The big picture: The Biden administration's recent plea that people wear masks indoors again risks falling on deaf ears in the hardest-hit states, leaving families who are at odds with local policies in a quandary.

Former D.C. Guard alleges Army Generals lied about Jan. 6 response

Members of the National Guard and Capitol police keep a small group of pro-Trump demonstrators away from the Capitol following the insurrection on Jan. 6. Photo: Spencer Platt/Getty Images

A former D.C. National Guard official has alleged that top Army generals "lied" to Congress in their testimony on the U.S. Capitol riot, Politico first reported Monday.

The big picture: Col. Earl Matthews, who was serving on Jan. 6, alleges in a memo that the official version on the military response is "worthy of the best Stalinist or North Korea propagandist" and that the Pentagon inspector general's November report on it features "myriad inaccuracies, false or misleading statements, or examples of faulty analysis."

Toyota to build $1.3 billion U.S. battery plant in North Carolina

The all-electric Toyota bZ4X, the company's first battery-electric vehicle, at the Los Angeles Auto Show in Los Angeles, California on Nov. 17. Photo: Frederic J. Brown/AFP via Getty Images

Toyota announced Monday it's investing $1.3 billion to construct an electric vehicle battery "megasite" near Greensboro, North Carolina, set to open in 2025.

Why it matters: Toyota's Prius hybrid won environmental plaudits when it launched in 1997, but it has since lost ground to electric vehicle world leader Tesla, per Axios' Joann Muller. This battery plant will be the first to produce automotive batteries for Toyota in North America.