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A rare fossil find and a new horseshoe crab

Vaderlimulus horseshoe crab fossil.
Vaderlimulus horseshoe crab fossil. Photo: New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science

Before there were birds, mammals and dinosaurs, horseshoe crabs were here. Over the past 450 million years, these relatives of scorpions and spiders (not crabs) passed through five mass extinctions. They stuck to the coasts for the most part so there was little pressure for them to evolve. The horseshoe crabs you see today look similar to their earliest ancestors.

What's new: A recent fossil find in Idaho indicates that in the time in between some ancient horseshoe crabs were more diverse than previously thought. The 245-million-year-old specimen, from when the state sat on the coast of the supercontinent Pangea, is "a missing puzzle piece," Allan Lerner, a research associate in paleontology at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, tells Axios.

The past: Every now and again, horseshoe crabs ventured out — or rather in — to freshwater environments. When they did, their morphology is thought to have changed. The fossil record during this time is sparse though because horseshoe crabs lack an exoskeleton with minerals that can be preserved except under exceptional conditions.

The discovery: The fossil found in Idaho is so far the only specimen of a new genus called Vaderlimulus with a large — "extravagant would be a good word," Lerner says — helmet and small body that evolved as it expanded into a freshwater environment. Eventually it went extinct though Lerner says they aren't sure why.

The future: This discovery shows horseshoe crabs used to be diverse. But today, only four species remain, and they're in decline due to human actions.

"We shouldn't take for granted that because they have lived as long as they have they will survive," Lerner says.

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The worst flu season in eight years

Note: Activity levels are based on outpatient visits in a state compared to the average number of visits that occur during weeks with little or no flu virus circulation; Data: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Chart: Chris Canipe/Axios

This year's flu season caught many experts off guard with both its sustained prevalence and its virulence. At its peak, there was a higher level of flu-like illnesses reported than any other year during the past eight years. Watch in the visual as it hits its peak around Week 18.

Why it matters: Public health officials try to capture this data when developing the next year's vaccines. And, of course, they want to find better ways to prevent severe flu seasons. There's a "Strategic Plan" to develop a universal vaccine to protect against a wider range of influenza viruses, Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, tells Axios.

Steve LeVine 12 hours ago
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The stakes for who wins the AI race

A sentient computer saying 'Hello World' in English, Chinese and Russian.
Illustration: Lazaro Gamio/Axios

One of the most urgent themes in technology is the global rivalry for dominance of the evolving sector of artificial intelligence — geopolitical and economic supremacy is said to be at stake. Experts view the U.S. and China as the top contenders, but other nations, including Russia, are working on AI, too.

What it means: In its latest edition, the Economist draws a sharp line as to the extraordinary ramifications of the race. "The global spread of a technosystem conceived in, and to an unknown extent controlled by, an undemocratic, authoritarian regime could have unprecedented historical significance," the magazine wrote.