4. How the "big lie" spread

Data: Axios research; Infographic: Alli Torban/Axios

Donald Trump's "big lie" playbook — the collection of falsehoods alleging that the 2020 election was stolen through voting fraud — mirrors the tactics used by sophisticated spreaders of disinformation.

The big picture: Research from the Harvard Kennedy School Shorenstein Center shows there's a typical cycle that people use to manipulate the media and spread disinformation. Trump's dissemination of false claims of a stolen election demonstrates how the cycle works.

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